16 Tons
17 Tons: Memory as practice
17 Tons: Memory as practice
2012 Architects & Refunc
Aesthetics of Pollution
Alexandrov, Grigori
Almarcegui, Lara
Amalrik, Leonid, Dmitri Babichenko & ...
Amorales, Carlos
Anthoine, Roger
Apóstol, Alexander
Art Salon | Artist Talk ...
Artwork Entry
Ashington Group, The
Auden, W. H. [Wystan Hugh]
Becher, Bernd & Hilla
Beehive Design Collective
Ben Cain: About his research
Ben Cain: Audience and Interaction
Ben Cain: Physical aspects of ...
Bevierre, Olivier
Biscotti, Rossella
Bissill, George
Boltanski, Christian
Boom, Irma & Johan Pijnappel
Brandt, Bill
Britten, Benjamin
Broodthaers, Marcel
Buckle, Janet
Burtynsky, Edward
Cain, Ben
Campbell, Duncan
Carboniferous Landscapes
Cinematek Brussels
Claire Fontaine
Claus, Emile
Coal Face, 1935
Cobb, Francis William
Contemporary Art
Cornish, Norman
Crises of Capitalism
Cuauhtémoc Media (Chief Curator Manifesta ...
Cvijanovic, Nemanja
Cycles of Realism
Dark Matter
Dawn Ades: Coal as a ...
Daykin, Gilbert
de Loutherbourg, Philippe Jacques
Deller, Jeremy
Demuth, Charles
Douard, Cécile
Duchamp, Marcel
Durán, Manuel
Edgar Hermans about the Heritage ...
Embroidered Sayings
Epics of Redundancy
Ernst, Max
European Civilisation
Furlan, Tomaž
Garden Cities
Geers, Kendell
Geerts, Paul
Goldin+ Senneby
Granata, Rocco
Gronbach, Eva
Grubic, Igor
Guillaumin, Armand
Habex, Jan
Hair, Thomas Harrison
Hammons, David
Hanging the Manifesta 9 Flag
Harrison, Tony
Harskamp, Nicoline van
Hedwig Fijen: The idea behind ...
Herman, Josef
Heslop, Robert
Hüner, Emre
Industrial Revolution
Interview: Ante Timmermans
Ivens, Joris & Henri Storck
Izquierdo, Jota
Jafri, Maryam
Jitrik, Magdalena
Kaliski, Kevin
Karikis, Mikhail & Uriel Orlow
Kessels, Willy
Kilbourn, Oliver
Klutsis, Gustav
Konijnenberg, Willem Adriaan van
Konrad, Aglaia
Kozakis, Nicolas & Raoul Vaneigem
Kuai Shen
Landscape: From the Picturesque to ...
Landscape: From the Picturesque to ...
Leck, Bart van der
Lieshout, Erik van
Linde Hermans: Scenography of Manifesta ...
Livrets des ouvriers mineurs du ...
Long, Richard
Luce, Maximilien
Luque, Manuel
Maciá, Oswaldo
Manifesta 9
Manifesta Journal 13: Conversation between ...
Martin, John
Masereel, Frans
Mass-Observation movement
Matthys, Michaël
McCullin, Don
McGuinness, Tom
Meunier, Constantin
Michaël Matthys about La Ville ...
Mieke Mels (Curatorial Assistant) about ...
Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig
Mining Machine
Monko, Marge
Moore, Henry
Munby, Arthur
Museum of the Miner’s House, ...
Newcomen Colliery Winding Engine
News from the Graveyard: On ...
Ni, Haifeng
Nostalgia and Its Discontents
Origins of Manifesta
Pabst, Georg Wilhelm
Paulus de Châtelet, Pierre
Perlee Parker, Henry
Poetics of Restructuring
Portrait of Spyros Roumeliotis and ...
Prayer Mats
Preparation of the Building
Promo Video
Raqs Media Collective
Rittase, William
Robinson, William Heath
Rocco Granata about 'Marina'
Saint Barbara
Schlingelhoff, Bea
Selander, Lina
Sime, Sidney
Smithson, Robert
Smoke, Colours and Loans
Soi, Praneet
Soviet propaganda
Stella, Joseph
Sutherland, Graham Vivien
The Age of Coal: An ...
The Legacy of Manifesta
The Mine Depot, Waterschei
Timmermans, Ante
Tomaszewski, Yan
Torfs, Ana
Underground as Hell
Underground, Models of the
Vanden Eynde, Maarten
Vandersteen, Willy
Vega Macotela, José Antonio
Venet, Bernar
Vercheval, Georges
Vermeir, Katleen & Ronny Heiremans
VIDEO: Kuai Shen
Video: manifesta 9 symposium on ...
VIDEO: Marge Monko - Nora's ...
VIDEO: Raqs Media Collective - ...
Video: Sounds from Beneath - ...
VIDEO:Oswaldo Maciá - Martinete
Visible Solutions, LLC
Waterschei Planning Archive
Woods, Paolo
Zola, Émile
Zwartberg drama

EN / nl


The father of modern chemistry, Antoine Lavoisier, used the term residuum to refer to a substance left behind after a chemical reaction took place (1790). Picture the chemical reaction taking place when a reactive substance such as potash or lime is exposed, inside a hermetic glass vessel, to air, a compound gas. Once the reaction occurs, the remaining portion of gas that did not react with the lime or potash is the residue. To determine the nature of that residue, “small trials are to be made of it by experiments” (ibid 325). One might introduce a lighted wick in the jar; if the compound contains some oxygen, the wick will stay lit. The brightness of the flame will indicate whether it contains more or less oxygen than does air. “If, on the contrary, the taper be instantly extinguished, we have strong reason to presume that the residuum is chiefly composed of azotic gaz” (ibid). The chemical industry – indeed, industry in general – brings thousands of ingredients into contact with each other. Reactions are then catalysed to yield the desired products. Each of these reactions churns out residues: the undesired, although not necessarily harmful, outcomes of production. As industry’s bastard progeny, residues first and foremost cause chagrin: here’s ballast to be disposed of, raising production costs without contributing to profits. When industry was in its infancy, factory owners didn’t trouble themselves too much with residues; they were simply discarded. Nineteenth century coal burning plants produced steam to power machines, and their chimneys spewed the resulting smoke straight out in the atmosphere without any thought to its content. Only later did pollution problems arise, forcing operators to take action. It appeared that the fine ash suspended in such exhaust had potential uses. Fly ash contains silicon dioxide and calcium oxide, as well as aluminum oxide and ferrous oxide (Helmuth 1987). These minerals are also the ingredients of cement; reusing the microscopic particles from coal exhaust enables the production of Portland cements less dependent on virgin resources. Once a harmful waste-product, fly ash became a marketable good. Likewise, crude oil refineries were slow in finding a use for their most important residue: asphalt, the stickiest outcome of fractional distillation. A breakthrough occurred in the 1870s, when someone invented a new road-paving material: finely crushed rocks held together by asphalt (Pasetto 2003). The market for this new by-product proved even more gigantic. Such stories of material thoughtfulness sketch the outlines of a utopia: a consumer society that functions as a perfectly balanced ecology, where nothing is lost and nothing is wasted. Unfortunately, just because a product is potentially useful does not make it a necessity. Today, only a fraction of fly ash is used in cement production; the rest is dumped. We no longer build enough roads to use all the asphalt that pours out of oil refineries, but the consumption of coal and oil around the world nevertheless increases inexorably. Carbon dioxide – that other remnant of combustion, that residue of animal life that in turn fuels photosynthesis – now clutters the atmosphere in such quantities that it has become a liability. The accumulation of residue remains one of the main products of the industrial age. R