EN / nl
In his 1898 book Garden Cities of To-morrow, Sir Ebenezer Howard proposed a visionary model of urbanisation that intended to combine nature with the needs of the Industrial Revolution.
Based loosely on the reading of the utopian novel Looking Backward 2000-1887 by Edward Bellamy (1887), Garden Cities of Tomorrow described the creation of self-contained communities built around radial boulevards in parks, where workers and technicians would enjoy the advantages both of the city and the countryside, freeing families from the evils of slumming, dirt and smoke brought out by industrialisation.
The Garden Cities movement was influential both in Americas and Europe, and its effects have to be traced to the paternalistic social design of factories and mine districts in Western Europe, along with the suburbia of cities in the USA and modernist ideal projects like Brazilia. The demand to import a work-force for the mines in Limburg has left behind a significant concentration of garden cities, which are one of the main legacies of coal mining in the region. CM