16 Tons
17 Tons: Memory as practice
17 Tons: Memory as practice
2012 Architects & Refunc
Aesthetics of Pollution
Alexandrov, Grigori
Almarcegui, Lara
Amalrik, Leonid, Dmitri Babichenko & ...
Amorales, Carlos
Anthoine, Roger
Apóstol, Alexander
Art Salon | Artist Talk ...
Artwork Entry
Ashington Group, The
Auden, W. H. [Wystan Hugh]
Becher, Bernd & Hilla
Beehive Design Collective
Ben Cain: About his research
Ben Cain: Audience and Interaction
Ben Cain: Physical aspects of ...
Bevierre, Olivier
Biscotti, Rossella
Bissill, George
Boltanski, Christian
Boom, Irma & Johan Pijnappel
Brandt, Bill
Britten, Benjamin
Broodthaers, Marcel
Buckle, Janet
Burtynsky, Edward
Cain, Ben
Campbell, Duncan
Carboniferous Landscapes
Cinematek Brussels
Claire Fontaine
Claus, Emile
Coal Face, 1935
Cobb, Francis William
Contemporary Art
Cornish, Norman
Crises of Capitalism
Cuauhtémoc Media (Chief Curator Manifesta ...
Cvijanovic, Nemanja
Cycles of Realism
Dark Matter
Dawn Ades: Coal as a ...
Daykin, Gilbert
de Loutherbourg, Philippe Jacques
Deller, Jeremy
Demuth, Charles
Douard, Cécile
Duchamp, Marcel
Durán, Manuel
Edgar Hermans about the Heritage ...
Embroidered Sayings
Epics of Redundancy
Ernst, Max
European Civilisation
Furlan, Tomaž
Garden Cities
Geers, Kendell
Geerts, Paul
Goldin+ Senneby
Granata, Rocco
Gronbach, Eva
Grubic, Igor
Guillaumin, Armand
Habex, Jan
Hair, Thomas Harrison
Hammons, David
Hanging the Manifesta 9 Flag
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Herman, Josef
Heslop, Robert
Hüner, Emre
Industrial Revolution
Interview: Ante Timmermans
Ivens, Joris & Henri Storck
Izquierdo, Jota
Jafri, Maryam
Jitrik, Magdalena
Kaliski, Kevin
Karikis, Mikhail & Uriel Orlow
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Kilbourn, Oliver
Klutsis, Gustav
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Konrad, Aglaia
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Kuai Shen
Landscape: From the Picturesque to ...
Landscape: From the Picturesque to ...
Leck, Bart van der
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Linde Hermans: Scenography of Manifesta ...
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Long, Richard
Luce, Maximilien
Luque, Manuel
Maciá, Oswaldo
Manifesta 9
Manifesta Journal 13: Conversation between ...
Martin, John
Masereel, Frans
Mass-Observation movement
Matthys, Michaël
McCullin, Don
McGuinness, Tom
Meunier, Constantin
Michaël Matthys about La Ville ...
Mieke Mels (Curatorial Assistant) about ...
Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig
Mining Machine
Monko, Marge
Moore, Henry
Munby, Arthur
Museum of the Miner’s House, ...
Newcomen Colliery Winding Engine
News from the Graveyard: On ...
Ni, Haifeng
Nostalgia and Its Discontents
Origins of Manifesta
Pabst, Georg Wilhelm
Paulus de Châtelet, Pierre
Perlee Parker, Henry
Poetics of Restructuring
Portrait of Spyros Roumeliotis and ...
Prayer Mats
Preparation of the Building
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Raqs Media Collective
Rittase, William
Robinson, William Heath
Rocco Granata about 'Marina'
Saint Barbara
Schlingelhoff, Bea
Selander, Lina
Sime, Sidney
Smithson, Robert
Smoke, Colours and Loans
Soi, Praneet
Soviet propaganda
Stella, Joseph
Sutherland, Graham Vivien
The Age of Coal: An ...
The Legacy of Manifesta
The Mine Depot, Waterschei
Timmermans, Ante
Tomaszewski, Yan
Torfs, Ana
Underground as Hell
Underground, Models of the
Vanden Eynde, Maarten
Vandersteen, Willy
Vega Macotela, José Antonio
Venet, Bernar
Vercheval, Georges
Vermeir, Katleen & Ronny Heiremans
VIDEO: Kuai Shen
Video: manifesta 9 symposium on ...
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VIDEO:Oswaldo Maciá - Martinete
Visible Solutions, LLC
Waterschei Planning Archive
Woods, Paolo
Zola, Émile
Zwartberg drama

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Epics of Redundancy

The word ‘epic’ is derived from the ancient Greek word ἔπος (epos) or ‘spoken word’. Anciently, it referred to a lengthy, lyrical form of poetry in which an individual protagonist stands up to his enemies. Redundancy can be interpreted as anything that is ‘superfluous’. In rhetoric, it refers to unnecessarily repeated expressions, but lately its meaning has been extended to refer to unnecessarily repeated labour. Epics of Redundancy focuses on developments in Europe in the past few decades. The second half of the 20th century saw the beginning of the end of the coal industry in Europe. Mine closures were at the centre of the political and cultural theorisation of the whole industrial crisis. Industry was misleadingly catapulted into the ‘post’-era: production and work were increasingly outsourced, heralding a geographical shift rather than the ‘end’ of the Industrial Age. Quite a few artists focus on the social and material consequences of this historic shift, as symbolised by the mine closures in Europe. Epics of Redundancy reconciles two quasi contradictory agencies, placing both collective and individual protagonists of the Industrial Age in the spotlight. The image of the miner has changed many times over the centuries. From a dirty, poorly paid job it became a position worthy of pride. Political and international supply and demand played an important part in this. In times of crisis, job shortages or abundance, the miner’s image was manipulated through large-scale campaigns. In the aftermath of World War II, the European coal industry experienced a real battle for coal, accompanied by an intense propaganda war with the aim of attracting miners to the pit. In 1957 Belgium declared its immigrant miners to be ‘honorary citizens’, furnishing them with attractive wages and even issuing a coin that bore the image of a miner, all as part of a major public relations offensive engineered by politicians. A year later, the international coal crisis broke out. Cheap coal imports from the US flooded the market with coal, and there was a simultaneous development of the nuclear energy and oil industries. As a result, the European Coal and Steel Community, founded in 1951, was forced to impose production quotas. Only when the international oil crisis broke out in 1973 did things improve somewhat, and then only for a short time. In Great Britain, the National Coal Board managed to persuade the government to make long-term investments in coal mining, as a buffer against the loss of the North Sea oil resources. Then in the early eighties, Margaret Thatcher reversed this strategy, essentially shutting down the industry. She did not hesitate to brand the angry strikers Mafiosi, “The enemy within”. “I must tell you that what we have got is an attempt to substitute the rule of the mob for the rule of law, and it must not succeed. It must not succeed. There are those who are using violence and intimidation to impose their will on others who do not want it. [...] The rule of law must prevail over the rule of the mob” (Thatcher 1984). With this the battle for coal was brought to Ogreave. MM