16 Tons
17 Tons: Memory as practice
17 Tons: Memory as practice
2012 Architects & Refunc
Aesthetics of Pollution
Alexandrov, Grigori
Almarcegui, Lara
Amalrik, Leonid, Dmitri Babichenko & ...
Amorales, Carlos
Anthoine, Roger
Apóstol, Alexander
Art Salon | Artist Talk ...
Artwork Entry
Ashington Group, The
Auden, W. H. [Wystan Hugh]
Becher, Bernd & Hilla
Beehive Design Collective
Ben Cain: About his research
Ben Cain: Audience and Interaction
Ben Cain: Physical aspects of ...
Bevierre, Olivier
Biscotti, Rossella
Bissill, George
Boltanski, Christian
Boom, Irma & Johan Pijnappel
Brandt, Bill
Britten, Benjamin
Broodthaers, Marcel
Buckle, Janet
Burtynsky, Edward
Cain, Ben
Campbell, Duncan
Carboniferous Landscapes
Cinematek Brussels
Claire Fontaine
Claus, Emile
Coal Face, 1935
Cobb, Francis William
Contemporary Art
Cornish, Norman
Crises of Capitalism
Cuauhtémoc Media (Chief Curator Manifesta ...
Cvijanovic, Nemanja
Cycles of Realism
Dark Matter
Dawn Ades: Coal as a ...
Daykin, Gilbert
de Loutherbourg, Philippe Jacques
Deller, Jeremy
Demuth, Charles
Douard, Cécile
Duchamp, Marcel
Durán, Manuel
Edgar Hermans about the Heritage ...
Embroidered Sayings
Epics of Redundancy
Ernst, Max
European Civilisation
Furlan, Tomaž
Garden Cities
Geers, Kendell
Geerts, Paul
Goldin+ Senneby
Granata, Rocco
Gronbach, Eva
Grubic, Igor
Guillaumin, Armand
Habex, Jan
Hair, Thomas Harrison
Hammons, David
Hanging the Manifesta 9 Flag
Harrison, Tony
Harskamp, Nicoline van
Hedwig Fijen: The idea behind ...
Herman, Josef
Heslop, Robert
Hüner, Emre
Industrial Revolution
Interview: Ante Timmermans
Ivens, Joris & Henri Storck
Izquierdo, Jota
Jafri, Maryam
Jitrik, Magdalena
Kaliski, Kevin
Karikis, Mikhail & Uriel Orlow
Kessels, Willy
Kilbourn, Oliver
Klutsis, Gustav
Konijnenberg, Willem Adriaan van
Konrad, Aglaia
Kozakis, Nicolas & Raoul Vaneigem
Kuai Shen
Landscape: From the Picturesque to ...
Landscape: From the Picturesque to ...
Leck, Bart van der
Lieshout, Erik van
Linde Hermans: Scenography of Manifesta ...
Livrets des ouvriers mineurs du ...
Long, Richard
Luce, Maximilien
Luque, Manuel
Maciá, Oswaldo
Manifesta 9
Manifesta Journal 13: Conversation between ...
Martin, John
Masereel, Frans
Mass-Observation movement
Matthys, Michaël
McCullin, Don
McGuinness, Tom
Meunier, Constantin
Michaël Matthys about La Ville ...
Mieke Mels (Curatorial Assistant) about ...
Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig
Mining Machine
Monko, Marge
Moore, Henry
Munby, Arthur
Museum of the Miner’s House, ...
Newcomen Colliery Winding Engine
News from the Graveyard: On ...
Ni, Haifeng
Nostalgia and Its Discontents
Origins of Manifesta
Pabst, Georg Wilhelm
Paulus de Châtelet, Pierre
Perlee Parker, Henry
Poetics of Restructuring
Portrait of Spyros Roumeliotis and ...
Prayer Mats
Preparation of the Building
Promo Video
Raqs Media Collective
Rittase, William
Robinson, William Heath
Rocco Granata about 'Marina'
Saint Barbara
Schlingelhoff, Bea
Selander, Lina
Sime, Sidney
Smithson, Robert
Smoke, Colours and Loans
Soi, Praneet
Soviet propaganda
Stella, Joseph
Sutherland, Graham Vivien
The Age of Coal: An ...
The Legacy of Manifesta
The Mine Depot, Waterschei
Timmermans, Ante
Tomaszewski, Yan
Torfs, Ana
Underground as Hell
Underground, Models of the
Vanden Eynde, Maarten
Vandersteen, Willy
Vega Macotela, José Antonio
Venet, Bernar
Vercheval, Georges
Vermeir, Katleen & Ronny Heiremans
VIDEO: Kuai Shen
Video: manifesta 9 symposium on ...
VIDEO: Marge Monko - Nora's ...
VIDEO: Raqs Media Collective - ...
Video: Sounds from Beneath - ...
VIDEO:Oswaldo Maciá - Martinete
Visible Solutions, LLC
Waterschei Planning Archive
Woods, Paolo
Zola, Émile
Zwartberg drama

EN / nl


The Industrial Revolution became fully visible in the second half of the 18th century when the harnessing of water power led to a huge increase in the size of machinery and large-scale factories entered the landscape. The largest in England was the ironworks at Coalbrookdale in Shropshire, where deposits of coal and ironstone were found close together, and where Abraham Darby began smelting iron ore with coke rather than charcoal. The first single-span iron bridge was erected over the River Severn in 1779 to carry the massive increase in traffic south from the Dale.

Coalbrookdale became the testing ground for changing attitudes toward nature and the landscape, an irresistible lure for artists, poets and travellers (forerunners of the modern tourist). It was a particularly romantic place: a long valley between steep, thickly wooded hills. Poets like Anna Seward mourned the desecration of this beautiful, wild valley, now filled with industrial machinery, engines and forges: O, violated Colebrook! In an hour... The Genius of thy shades, by Plutus brib’d Amid thy grassy lanes, thy wildwood glens, Thy knolls and bubbling wells, thy rocks and streams, Slumbers! – while tribes fuliginous invade The soft, romantic consecrated scenes; Haunt of the wood nymph... (quoted in Klingender 1968:89) The poem uses the classical iambic pentameter to describe the loss of the picturesque landscape, and both old and new are infused with classical references to nymphs and Plutus, the ancient Greek god of wealth, while the invading labour force is given the Latinate epithet ‘fuliginous’, sooty. But others saw in the man-made scenes something thrilling: a new form of the sublime, no longer produced by the terrors of the natural world – mountains, avalanches, torrents, ravines – but by the ‘art’ of industry. As the modernising agricultural writer and traveller Arthur Young wrote in 1785, “That variety of horrors art has spread at the bottom [of Coalbrookdale]; the noise of the forges, mills etc. with all their vast machinery, the flames bursting from the furnaces with the burning of the coal and the smoak [sic] of the lime kilns, are altogether sublime” (quoted in Klingender 1968: 89). This is the effect de Loutherbourg achieves in Coalbrookdale by Night (1801), enhanced by the contrast between the fires and the blackness of night. Coalbrookdale was a frequent subject for topographical draughtsmen as well as for artists specialising in the picturesque. In Iron Works, Colebrookdale [sic], an aquatint from The Romantic and Picturesque Scenery of England and Wales (1805), de Loutherbourg treated it in a picturesque mode. Rather than emphasising the overwhelming, inhuman power of the new industrial landscape he focuses here on ‘pictorial incidents:’ the man on an old carthorse, with the small sled and dog, and the broken outlines of the banks and hills. The curious objects in the foreground, which appear to be broken chimneys and pipes, might be industry’s equivalent of the fallen classical columns in romantic scenes of ruins. DA